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  1. #1
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    Default Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    visit-red-300x50PNG
    While searching for a scent for the \'lil lady I came across this:

    It says it has a blend of pheromones in it but they don\'t go into detail. This one is much more expensive than the usual bottle of LotV also. Anyone got any details? Is this a rip off?
    Last edited by belgareth; 03-02-2005 at 10:23 AM.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    What an interesting site! I\'ve never seen them before. I\'m going to email and see if she will say exactly what pheromones she\'s using.

    $65.00 seems steep ... but supposedly it\'s very concentrated ... ?

    The testimonials look promising...

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Guess I could have done that to. hehe
    Let us know how it goes will ya? [img]/ubbthreads/images/graemlins/smile.gif[/img]

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    I will. I just wrote to her and said she was likely to be deluged with mail and that we were pretty knowledgeable and sophisticated pheromone users who mixed different \'mones for different effects, so we would need to know which pheromones she uses in what concentrations in her colognes so we would know how to adjust our other \'mones accordingly.

    I told her if she\'d write back to me I\'d post it and then we would not all email her with the same question over and over.

    And for her to get her sample supply ready.

    [img]/ubbthreads/images/graemlins/smile.gif[/img]

  5. #5
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Oh FTR, What a woman, so kind to the rest of us!!!

  6. #6
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    If that is a link to another pheromone selling site, I would have to delete it. I won\'t delete it (yet), because first we (read:FTR) have to find out what this is all about ....

    Franki [img]/ubbthreads/images/graemlins/smile.gif[/img]

  7. #7
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    This is her response to me.

    Greetings Renee,

    Thanks for the mention. I am familiar with the Love Scent site.

    We use 100% estratetraenol ( estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol ) which is mixed with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract men & 100% androstadienone ( 4,16-androstadien-3-one ) with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract women. 1/2 ml per 1/3 ounce are contained in the perfume. These formulations are exactally the same as those used by UC-Berkeley in their olfactory experiments.This is a generous pheromone amount & more than enough to be effective.

    The expense is a result of the laboratory certified manufacturer of our pheromones, a non alcohol base which doubles the life & staying power of our perfumes & the highest quality perfume ingredients. \"You get what you pay for\". I am sure most of the forum readers know that you can not get effective pheromones for $14.99.

    As to the increase or decrease of pheromone formulas, I would suggest you do what I do which I find the most effective..use both estra. & andros. together. It tends to make the whole world smile with you & very effective if you work with both men & women.

    Let us know if we can answer any other questions. We have a lot of research on pheromones which we can draw from if requested.

    Best Regards,

    Jane Langdon, President

    House of Rose, LLC

    You\'ll notice she advises mixing with products that she herself does not sell.

    I don\'t think this site competes with
    L-S - it more complements it than anything else, and that just for the women. Unless you guys are going to start wearing Lily of the Valley, Rose, and Carnation.


  8. #8
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Hmm, kinda torn on whether to get this for my SO or not. She does like to collect bottles and their collectors edition bottle doesnt sound to bad.
    One point of confusion tho... estratetraenol = AndrosteNOL?
    Couldn\'t find any reference to estratetraenol in the forums.
    Thanks for getting the info FTR, Yer a doll. [img]/ubbthreads/images/graemlins/wink.gif[/img]

  9. #9
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    No problem, my pleasure! Thanks for the link. I\'ve been looking for a pure carnation forever.

  10. #10
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    We use 100% estratetraenol ( estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol ) which is mixed with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract men &amp; 100% androstadienone ( 4,16-androstadien-3-one ) with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract women.

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">

    Correct me if I\'m wrong, but aren\'t these folks using the chemistry covered by the Erox patents?

  11. #11
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    Correct me if I\'m wrong, but aren\'t these folks using the chemistry covered by the Erox patents?

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">

    Such as Realm for Men and Women?

  12. #12
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Cant find a whole lot of info on estratetraenol except that it is reported to be a sexual attractant to men. Although in the same report I read on that it also said that AndrosteNOL is a pig pheromone and that it had no effect on the human VNO. [img]/ubbthreads/images/graemlins/confused.gif[/img]

  13. #13
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    ooo, would you post in Yo, Scientifical People about this.

    I have no idea whether these are Realm folk or what.

  14. #14
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    I think a lot of perfume makers use pheros these days. I´ve found some places aa well as new mone products. I let Bruce know about them a short while ago but I don´t know if he´s gone and checked themout yet.

  15. #15
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    House of Rose,LLC does not use pheromones covered by the Erox patent. <font color=\"brown\"> </font>

  16. #16
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    House of Rose, LLC does not link to any other sites. Period.

  17. #17
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Yeah, I just posted that up in the main forum under Yo Scientifical People.

    She\'s an awfully nice woman. Very straightforward and accommodating, very kind.

  18. #18
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    Pheromone Research

    Chemical communication being studied at IU’s Institute for

    Pheromone Research
    By Hal Kibbey
    Novotny

    An IU chemist’s laboratory identified the first definitive

    mammalian pheromones in the house mouse in the late 1980s.

    Before then, the term \'pheromones\' was largely confined to the

    world of insects. In a recent issue of \'Nature,\' Milos Novotny

    and Harvard colleagues explore \'semiochemicals\' in mammals.

    All it takes is a few molecules of a certain chemical to enable

    mammals to smell their own species up to a half-mile away, says

    Milos Novotny, Distinguished Professor of chemistry and

    director of the Institute for Pheromone Research at Indiana

    University Bloomington.
    The chemicals, called pheromones, are detected by the

    vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the animal\'s nose. Unlike the part of

    the nose that detects ordinary smells, this super-sensitive organ

    is connected directly to the mid-brain.

    \"This is the shortest organ-to-brain distance in mammalian

    biology,\" Novotny said. \"A cascade of biochemical processes can

    be triggered quite selectively by specific olfactants such as

    pheromones at incredibly small quantities. Studies of mammalian

    pheromones can have a significant effect on pest control,

    promoting endangered species, and, perhaps above all, for

    understanding our own sense of smell and associated behaviors.\"

    Signals from a mammal\'s nose caused by normal smells called

    odorants go to various places in the cortex, in the upper part of

    the brain, which is why humans are conscious of smells. But

    pheromone signals go directly to the mid-brain, without being

    processed by the conscious brain. What happens after that is

    not completely clear, but there is a lot of evidence that the

    animal\'s behavior and hormonal levels are influenced.

    In a paper published July 12 in the journal Nature, Novotny and

    co-workers at Harvard Medical School in Boston headed by

    Linda Buck reported that the vomeronasal organ can actually

    detect both odorants and pheromones. The VNO detected

    odorants classified as animalic, camphoraceous, citrus, floral,

    fruity, green/minty, musky, sweet or woody. Like pheromones,

    these odorants were detected at extremely small

    concentrations.

    \"This suggests that in mammals, as in insects, odorous

    compounds released from plants or other animal species may act

    as \'semiochemicals\'--signaling molecules that elicit behaviors

    that are advantageous to the sender or the receiver,\" Novotny

    said.

    \"The house mouse provides a classic example of an elaborate

    pheromone communication system: to signal inter-male

    aggression and dominance, to show readiness for mating, to slow

    down or accelerate the onset of puberty as needed, or to signal

    stress to the other members of a colony,\" he said. \"Other

    mammals, including possibly humans, use structurally diverse

    substances for pheromone signaling.\"

    The established view is that mammals detect odorants in the

    olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nose and detect pheromones in

    the vomeronasal organ. OE signals are relayed to various areas

    in the cortex of the brain, while VNO signals are targeted to

    areas of the mid-brain that control instinctive drives,

    neuroendocrine responses and innate behaviors. The findings by

    Novotny and his collaborators demonstrate that the VNO and

    OE do not, in fact, detect mutually exclusive sets of chemicals.

    Novotny\'s laboratory identified the first definitive mammalian

    pheromones in the house mouse in the late 1980s, including their

    chemical structure, synthesis and biological effects. Before

    then, the term \"pheromones\" was largely confined to the world

    of insects. Since then, he has identified pheromones in rats and

    hamsters as well.

    His current emphasis is on the neurochemistry of neurons in the

    VNO and OE. He is the leader of interdisciplinary studies that

    bridge the physical sciences, life sciences and social sciences,

    including chemistry, neurobiology, psychobiology, biochemistry,

    wildlife ecology, medical sciences, and animal physiology and

    behavior.

    The Institute for Pheromone Research at IU is a center of

    excellence in the rapidly developing areas of chemical

    communication (semiochemistry) and biochemical aspects of

    olfactory perception. It promotes interdisciplinary collaborations

    between IU scientists and a worldwide network of researchers

    in chemical communication.

    Both smells and pheromones may arouse instinctive behaviors in

    mammals


    July 16, 2001


    BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Ever notice how male dogs come from

    the other side of the neighborhood when a female dog is in heat?


    All it takes is a few molecules of a certain chemical to enable

    mammals to smell their own species up to a half-mile away, said

    Milos Novotny, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and

    director of the Institute for Pheromone Research at Indiana

    University.


    The chemicals, called pheromones, are detected by the

    vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the animal\'s nose. Unlike the part of

    the nose that detects ordinary smells, this super-sensitive organ

    is connected directly to the mid-brain.


    \"This is the shortest organ-to-brain distance in mammalian

    biology,\" Novotny said. \"A cascade of biochemical processes can

    be triggered quite selectively by specific olfactants such as

    pheromones at incredibly small quantities. Studies of mammalian

    pheromones can have a significant effect on pest control,

    promoting endangered species, and, perhaps above all, for

    understanding our own sense of smell and associated behaviors.\"


    Signals from a mammal\'s nose caused by normal smells called

    odorants go to various places in the cortex, in the upper part of

    the brain, which is why humans are conscious of smells. But

    pheromone signals go directly to the mid-brain, without being

    processed by the conscious brain. What happens after that is

    not completely clear, but there is a lot of evidence that the

    animal\'s behavior and hormonal levels are influenced.


    In a paper published July 12 in the journal Nature, Novotny and

    co-workers at Harvard Medical School in Boston headed by

    Linda Buck reported that the vomeronasal organ can actually

    detect both odorants and pheromones. The VNO detected

    odorants classified as animalic, camphoraceous, citrus, floral,

    fruity, green/minty, musky, sweet or woody. Like pheromones,

    these odorants were detected at extremely small

    concentrations.


    \"This suggests that in mammals, as in insects, odorous

    compounds released from plants or other animal species may act

    as \'semiochemicals\' -- signaling molecules that elicit behaviors

    that are advantageous to the sender or the receiver,\" Novotny

    said.


    \"The house mouse provides a classic example of an elaborate

    pheromone communication system: to signal inter-male

    aggression and dominance, to show readiness for mating, to slow

    down or accelerate the onset of puberty as needed, or to signal

    stress to the other members of a colony,\" he said. \"Other

    mammals, including possibly humans, use structurally diverse

    substances for pheromone signaling.\"


    The established view is that mammals detect odorants in the

    olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nose and detect pheromones in

    the vomeronasal organ. OE signals are relayed to various areas

    in the cortex of the brain, while VNO signals are targeted to

    areas of the mid-brain that control instinctive drives,

    neuroendocrine responses and innate behaviors. The findings by

    Novotny and his collaborators demonstrate that the VNO and

    OE do not, in fact, detect mutually exclusive sets of chemicals.


    Novotny\'s laboratory identified the first definitive mammalian

    pheromones in the house mouse in the late 1980s, including their

    chemical structure, synthesis and biological effects. Before

    then, the term \"pheromones\" was largely confined to the world

    of insects. Since then, he has identified pheromones in rats and

    hamsters as well.


    His current emphasis is on the neurochemistry of neurons in the

    VNO and OE. He is the leader of interdisciplinary studies that

    bridge the physical sciences, life sciences and social sciences,

    including chemistry, neurobiology, psychobiology, biochemistry,

    wildlife ecology, medical sciences, and animal physiology and

    behavior.


    The Institute for Pheromone Research at IU is a center of

    excellence in the rapidly developing areas of chemical

    communication (semiochemistry) and biochemical aspects of

    olfactory perception. It promotes interdisciplinary collaborations

    between IU scientists and a worldwide network of researchers

    in chemical communication.


    Novotny can be reached at 812-855-4532 or novotny@indiana.

    edu


    (Hal Kibbey, 812-855-0074, hkibbey@indiana.edu)


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Monday August 28, 2000
    Researchers find gene that may open door to pheromone

    By The Associated Press

    Scientists have identified the first human gene that may be

    linked to pheromones, odorless molecules that in other animals

    trigger primal urges including sex, defense and kinship.


    Experts describe the discovery as possibly opening a new door

    into the role of pheromones in human development.


    In animals, researchers have documented how pheromones trace

    complex neurological paths to stimulate parts of the brain that

    are deeply rooted in instinct.


    Researchers have long believed that humans also communicate

    through pheromones, but until now they had been unable to find

    any of the equipment needed to detect these potent molecules.


    Now, in experiments at Rockefeller University and Yale,

    neurogeneticists have isolated a human gene, labeled V1RL1, that

    they believe encodes for a pheromone receptor in the mucous

    lining of the nose. A receptor is a patch on the surface of a cell

    that binds with specific molecules, like a lock that accepts only a

    specific key.


    \'\'This is the first convincing identification of a human pheromone

    receptor,\'\' said University of Colorado biochemist Joseph Falke.


    Humans share the V1RL1 gene with rodents and other mammals

    that rely heavily on pheromone cues to survive.


    However, it has not been determined whether the gene is active

    in humans or which pheromone-induced behavior the gene might

    induce.


    \'\'The ultimate test will be to find a pheromone that binds to the

    receptor and triggers a measurable physiological response,\'\'

    Falke said.


    The research was published in the September issue of the

    journal Nature Genetics.


    Researchers took samples from a gene bank and scanned them

    for matches to the rodent genes from the V1r family. They

    found eight matches in human genetic material.


    Further testing showed that seven of the eight human V1r genes

    are inoperative. The potentially functional gene, called V1RL1,

    subsequently was found in 11 out of 11 randomly chosen people

    from varying ethnic backgrounds, researchers said.


    While rodents and other creatures essentially are reactive

    animals that depend heavily on pheromones for behavioral cues,

    humans use their larger brains to rely more on judgment and

    complex sensory cues, such as vision.


    \'\'In mice, we think there are more than 100 functioning genes in

    the V1r family,\'\' said Ivan Rodriguez of Rockefeller University,

    lead author of the study. \'\'But in humans, V1RL1 may very well

    be the sole functioning gene in the family.\'\'


    \'\'Why has it hung around all this time?\'\' said Charles Wysocki of

    the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. \'\'It must be

    very important if it has outlived all of its predecessors.\'\'


    Scientists aren\'t sure what happened to the other 99 genes.


    \'\'It\'s unheard of that a family of 100 genes in mice is reduced

    to a single gene in humans,\'\' said the study\'s senior author,

    Peter Mombaerts.


    In most mammals, pheromones usually are detected by a

    specialized organ inside the nose or mouth called the

    vomeronasal organ, or VNO. Nerves connect it to parts of the

    brain involved in reactions rather than cognition.


    In humans, the organ appears in embryos with its nerve cells

    extending into the developing brain. For several weeks, it serves

    as a pathway for hormones vital to sexual development and

    maturity. However, the VNO in humans shrinks and stops

    working before birth.


    Researchers have long suspected that humans communicate with

    pheromones. But how pheromones are produced and how they

    are detected across a room, or even greater distances, is poorly

    understood.


    One 1998 study at the University of Chicago demonstrated that

    pheromones in underarm sweat prompt women living in close

    quarters to synchronize their menstrual cycles.


    Some companies put pheromones in perfumes. Chemical makers

    bait insect traps with pheromones.


    Mombaerts said it is too early to tell whether the gene discovery

    might lead to pheromone-based medicines.


    However, the potential for pheromone misuse worries some

    researchers and bioethicists.


    \'\'Safeguards will be needed to prevent the manipulation of

    human behavior,\'\' Falke said. \'\'We won\'t want pheromones

    showing up in magazine ads, or pumped through ventilation

    systems at the mall.\'\'
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Brief Communication

    Nature, 12 July 2001

    Nature ,Volume 412, No. 6843, page 142 © Macmillan

    Publishers Ltd.

    Neuropharmacology: Odorants may arouse instinctive

    behaviours*

    Mehran Sam*, Sadhna Vora*, Bettina Malnic*, Weidong Ma,

    Milos V Novtny, Linda B Buck*
    * Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of

    Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

    02115, USA
    Institute for Pheromone Research, Department of Chemistry,

    Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    e-mail: lbuck@hms.harvard.edu

    The prevailing view of the mammalian olfactory system is that

    odorants are detected only in the nasal olfactory epithelium,

    whereas pheromones are generally detected in the vomeronasal

    organ. Here we show that vomeronasal neurons can actually

    detect both odorants and pheromones. This suggests that in

    mammals, as in insects, odorous compounds released from plants

    or other animal species may act as \'semiochemicals\' -- signalling

    molecules that elicit stereotyped behaviours that are

    advantageous to the emitter or to the receiver.

    *Reproduced with permission of Nature © Macmillan Pub. Ltd

    2001 Reg. No. 785998 England.




    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Office of Development and Alumni Programs |
    Table of Contents
    The College Magazine Home


    Chemical Attractions

    In his acceptance speech at the College of Arts and Sciences

    banquet where he was presented with the 1999 Distinguished

    Faculty Award, Milos Novotny recalled the journey that brought

    him to Indiana University. Born in Czechoslovakia, he earned his

    doctorate in biochemistry from the University of Brno in 1965.

    He left Czechoslovakia for a research post in Stockholm,

    Sweden, just weeks before Russian tanks moved in to repress

    the brief flowering of freedom known as the Prague Spring.

    Since 1971 he has been on the faculty at IU, but his

    international ties remain important to him. Science, he says, is an

    international discipline whose practitioners owe their first

    allegiance to the pursuit of knowledge. \"I don’t think you can

    stop people from discovering,\" says Novotny. \"It’s our basic

    human nature. We are curious. And of course we try to put our

    discoveries to good uses.\"

    Anyone who has ever leafed through a copy of Vogue or

    Mademoiselle is probably already familiar with the concept of

    pheromones. In the world of these magazines, pheromones are

    the mysterious substances that act subconsciously to produce

    sudden paroxysms of lust, adding their je-sais-exactly-quoi to

    expensive perfumes. Less sexily, they cause masses of women

    living together, as in dorms, to have their periods at the same

    time.

    Well, the magazines don’t have it entirely wrong, but they don’t

    have it right, either. Pheromones—the real thing—are much less

    well understood and much more complex than the popular

    picture of sexual telepathy implies. They are also much more

    interesting.

    Milos Novotny, James H. Rudy Professor of bioanalytical

    chemistry, has devoted a good part of the last twenty years or

    so to studying pheromones. His reaction to the notion that a dash

    of human pheromones in a bottle of perfume can spice up your

    sex life is a dismissive chuckle. All the same, there is clearly a

    note of passion in his voice when he discusses the subject.

    \"In the mid 1970s I became aware of pheromone communication

    in mammals,\" he says. Many studies had already been done on

    their effects on insects; Japanese beetle traps, for example,

    developed as a result of research done in the 60s, use

    pheromones to lure the beetles to their deaths. But even now,

    very few people are doing work with mammals. Novotny is one of

    the few. \"Some people refer to me as the chemist in this field,\"

    he says, with some chagrin. \"It’s nice to have something that is

    your own, but I wish more people were involved, to develop the

    field more quickly.\"

    Novotny is drawn to research with mammals because their

    complexity is so great. There is, he says, \"more plasticity to the

    behavior of the mammal,\" while insects respond in very

    consistent and predictable ways to chemical cues. \"You

    synthesize pheromones in the lab, then there is a big danger all

    the ants in the building will come to that place,\" says Novotny. \"

    Insects will follow slavishly a trail, animals think a little more.\"

    Initially inspired by Marvin Carmack, professor emeritus of

    organic chemistry, Novotny began developing techniques for

    separating pheromones from the complex substances, such as

    urine, that carry them. He has worked mainly with mice and

    nocturnal animals whose poor vision demands that they rely

    heavily on the sense of smell.

    \"We have been able to reproduce the biological effect,\" Novotny

    says. \"We can put man-made chemical on the skin of mice and

    cause them to fight.\"

    In addition to inducing aggression, pheromones are linked to the

    following behavioral phenomena: Acceleration of puberty,

    dominance, synchronization of estrus, and, yes, sexual

    attraction.

    It is hard to tell, in such a young field, where the research might

    lead. Pest control, as mentioned above, is one practical

    application, but there will certainly be many more. Novotny is

    particularly intrigued by the neurobiological aspects of his work

    \"I’d like to see pheromone research leading to a better

    understanding of the sense of smell,\" he says. \"The nose is the

    shortest possible route to our brain.\"


    Although his interest in pheromones is longstanding, Novotny’s

    work in the 70s, when he first came to IU, was quite a different

    kettle of fish. On a bookshelf in his office in the chemistry

    building he keeps a memento,\"“for sentimental reasons,\" of those

    earlier efforts. It looks like a sprung Slinky that’s gone down the

    steps a few too many times. On closer examination, it turns out

    to be made of glass. Coiled, it’s easy to hold in your hand, but

    fully extended, Novotny says, breaking off a few expendable

    inches at the end for emphasis, it’s 50 yards long. This inelegant

    object turns out to be a highly sophisticated measuring device, a

    chromatogram. The glass is flecked inside with chemicals. When

    a substance to be analyzed is put in at one end, as it travels the

    length of the tube these chemicals react with different

    components of the unknown substance, ultimately reducing it

    from its sum into its parts.

    It seems surprising, somehow, that in the era of the Internet

    and space travel, scientific advancement should be dependant on

    something so apparently simple as making a long enough, thin

    enough tube. \"It all goes hand in hand,\" says Novotny. \"This,\" he

    says, grasping a metal version of the chromatogram, \"went to

    analyze Martian soil [as part of the 1975 Viking Lander mission].

    High technologies click into \"low\" very well. These tubes can be

    attached to a computer that can distinguish, quantify, and

    compare the results.\"

    The link between this early work and his current research into

    pheromones and glycans, or sugars—the two areas that Novotny

    says are closest to his heart—is his lifelong interest in

    understanding the workings of those most complex biological

    systems, human beings. \"The human body I view as one big

    chemical reactor,\" he says. \"My guiding philosophy for doing

    science is that I’m interested in some kinds of natural

    phenomena and it’s much easier to develop methodologies for

    what I’m interested in.\"

    Even as a child, growing up in Czechoslovakia, Novotny knew he

    was going to be a scientist. At first, he wanted to do something

    biologically oriented. “My father was a botanist, so he really

    introduced me to nature,” he says. \"At 15, I just happened to

    run into a medical student—he rented an apartment in my aunt’s

    house. I would have him explain things to me, and when he was

    studying for his exams, he used me as a sounding board.\"

    Not surprisingly, Novotny aspired to study medicine himself, but

    he was \"prevented by politics from doing this.\" Under

    communism, he says, \"the system decided for you what you

    should do. I didn’t have a sufficiently politically friendly profile

    to pursue anything as socially prestigious as being a doctor.

    However, if I cannot do one thing, I try to do the next.\" And

    thus the chemist was born.

    That willingness to try the next thing is a hallmark of Novotny’s

    work as well as his life. The themes that come up over and over

    again in his colleague’s commendations are his tenacity and his

    creativity. Both in the laboratory and in the classroom, he is

    constantly looking for new problems to be solved, and new ways

    to solve them.

    Novotny himself finds the creativity of a scientist to be an

    unknown quanitity Where does it come from? And how does a

    teacher cultivate it? Novotny’s approach to these problems

    derives from his own experience. To become a creative scientist,

    a student needs to begin with boundless curiosity and then to

    train that curiosity with rigor. \"Creativity in science is a subject

    that intrigues me,” he says. \"I try to instill this in my students.

    Not just creativity, though. There has to be discipline in

    following through. One of my colleagues once said, ‘in science

    you have to be reckless,’ not intimidated by authority. I think we

    are like artists in that way.\"

    400 E. 7th Street. Bloomington, IN 47405
    Phone: (812) 855-6494
    Publication date: August 31, 2001
    Comments: homepgs@indiana.edu
    Copyright 2000, The Trustees of Indiana University


    PHEROMONE RESOURCES

    www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9803/11/pheromones/

    www.nature.com/dynasearch/app/dynasearch.taf

    Cutler WB (1998) Pheromonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior

    in Hormonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior, American

    Psychiatric Press, ed. U Halbreich, MD American Psychiatric

    Press in press.

    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (1998) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones

    Disease-A-Month, 44:423-546

    Cutler WB, McCoy NL, Friedmann E (1998) Pheromonal

    Influences on Sociosexual Behavior: Response to Wysocki and

    Preti, Archives of Sexual Behavior 27:629-634.

    Cutler W (1999) Human Sex-Attractant Pheromones: Discovery,

    Research, Development, and Application in Sex Therapy.

    Psychiatric Annals 1999; 29:54-59.


    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (2000) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones:

    Part 1 The Sex Hormones, Adrenal Sex Hormones and

    Pheromonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior. Current Problems

    in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility 23:1:1-32.

    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (2000) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones:

    Part II Hormone Replacement Therapy; Part III Hysterectomy.

    Current Problems in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility 23:1:

    33-88.

    www.nel.edu/22_5/NEL220501R01_Review.htm

    www.cnn.com/HEALTH/women/9906/25/sexuality.scent/www

    .findarticles.com/cf_0/m1042/7_48/54141345/print.jhtml
    -------------------------------------------------------------------
    PHEROMONE RESOURCES

    www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9803/11/pheromones/

    www.nature.com/dynasearch/app/dynasearch.taf

    Cutler WB (1998) Pheromonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior

    in Hormonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior, American

    Psychiatric Press, ed. U Halbreich, MD American Psychiatric

    Press in press.

    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (1998) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones

    Disease-A-Month, 44:423-546

    Cutler WB, McCoy NL, Friedmann E (1998) Pheromonal

    Influences on Sociosexual Behavior: Response to Wysocki and

    Preti, Archives of Sexual Behavior 27:629-634.

    Cutler W (1999) Human Sex-Attractant Pheromones: Discovery,

    Research, Development, and Application in Sex Therapy.

    Psychiatric Annals 1999; 29:54-59.


    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (2000) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones:

    Part 1 The Sex Hormones, Adrenal Sex Hormones and

    Pheromonal Modulation of Brain and Behavior. Current Problems

    in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility 23:1:1-32.

    Cutler WB, Genovese-Stone E (2000) Wellness in Women After

    40 Years of Age: The Role of Sex Hormones and Pheromones:

    Part II Hormone Replacement Therapy; Part III Hysterectomy.

    Current Problems in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Fertility 23:1:

    33-88.

    www.nel.edu/22_5/NEL220501R01_Review.htm

    www.cnn.com/HEALTH/women/9906/25/sexuality.scent/www

    .findarticles.com/cf_0/m1042/7_48/54141345/print.jhtml


    Pheromone Receptors Need \"Escorts\"



    \"This association opens all sorts of possibilities for the

    mechanism of pheromone detection,\" said HHMI investigator

    Catherine Dulac.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    March 7, 2003— Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

    researches and their colleagues have discovered that escort

    molecules are required to usher pheromone receptors to the

    surface of sensory neurons where they are needed to translate

    chemical cues.

    In an interesting twist, the researchers found that the escort

    molecules belong to a family of proteins, called the major

    histocompatibility complex (MHC), which plays an important role

    in the immune system. The researchers speculate that in addition

    to being escort molecules, the MHC proteins might actively

    modulate an animal\'s response to pheromones. Modulation of

    pheromone activity might aid in the recognition of other animals.

    The studies in mice add “a novel and unexpected layer of

    complexity to the process of pheromone detection,” the

    researchers wrote in an article published in the March 7, 2003,

    issue of the journal Cell. The article was published online on

    March 4, 2003. The findings also suggest that, similarly, escort

    molecules, although of a different kind, may be important in

    smell and taste receptors.

    HHMI investigators Catherine Dulac at Harvard University and

    Kirsten Fischer Lindahl at the University of Texas Southwestern

    Medical Center led the research teams that collaborated on the

    studies.

    The pheromone communication system, which is found in a wide

    range of mammals, involves detection of chemical odorants

    released by animals. Detection of pheromones takes place in a

    specialized structure, called the vomeronasal organ (VNO).

    Although the VNO resides in the nasal cavity, the pheromone

    sensory system is distinct from the sense of smell, as are the

    chemical receptors involved. In animals possessing a pheromone

    sensory system — including mice, dogs, cats and elephants — the

    system governs a range of genetically preprogrammed mating,

    social ranking, maternal, and territorial defense behaviors.

    According to Dulac, untangling the complexity of the pheromone

    system has been a daunting task for researchers. “For example,

    if you compare the number of receptors, which ranges between

    two hundred and four hundred, and the number of behaviors

    they trigger, which ranges up to a dozen, there is a huge

    discrepancy,” she said. “So, you can either postulate that there

    are hundreds of behaviors not yet described, or more likely a

    given behavior involves the activation of multiple receptors.”

    To begin sorting out the functions of the multitude of

    pheromone receptors, Dulac and her colleagues decided to study

    a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the VNO. The researchers

    knew they could distinguish neurons that expressed one family

    of receptors, called V2R, from another family, called V1R, so

    they used a technique called “subtractive differential screening

    of single cell cDNA libraries” to compare the genes that are

    switched on in neurons bearing the two different types of

    pheromone receptor.

    Their comparisons — as well as sequencing of the discovered

    genes and searches of gene databases — yielded evidence that

    two families of MHC genes called M1 and M10 were

    preferentially activated in these neurons, said Dulac. The finding

    was surprising because MHC proteins commonly function on the

    surface of immune cells to present foreign proteins to the

    immune system to trigger destruction of invading pathogens. The

    M10 proteins found in the VNO were different in structure and

    obviously in function from other such molecules.

    Dulac\'s and Fischer Lindahl\'s research teams set out to explore

    the structure and function of the M10 type of MHC proteins

    that the genes produced. Their studies revealed that the MHC

    genes were exclusively expressed in the VNO and in no other

    tissue. And within the VNO, they were only expressed in V2R-

    positive VNO neurons. The researchers observed that each type

    of V2R receptor apparently had a specific type of M10 protein

    associated with it.

    “So, we found that there is a population of neurons in which each

    neuron expresses only one type of pheromone receptor gene,”

    said Dulac. “We also were able to show that these individual

    neurons express only one type of M10 gene. This told us there

    was some type of logic in that association.”

    Additional studies showed that the M10 gene was activated only

    after birth, which suggested that M10 only functions in

    pheromone sensing in the adult animal. The researchers showed

    that the M10 proteins, like the pheromone receptor proteins,

    were localized to the tips of neurons, called dendrites, where

    chemical reception takes place.

    Their studies showed that the M10 protein, as well as an “

    accessory” molecule, beta2-microglobulin, that accompanies such

    M10 proteins, directly interacted with the pheromone receptor

    molecule. Finally, they found that the M10 protein and its

    accessory molecule were necessary for the pheromone receptor

    to reach the surface of the neuron.

    The researchers also explored the effects of knocking out the

    key M10 accessory molecule, beta2-microglobulin, in mice. They

    found that the beta2-microglobulin-knockout male mice lacked

    V2R receptors in their VNOs and also failed to exhibit the

    normal aggressive behavior toward other males.

    According to Dulac, the scientists\' findings show that M10 plays

    a crucial escort role for pheromone receptors, but it might well

    have a modulatory role. “The fact that the receptor needs M10

    to go to the surface, doesn\'t prove it\'s the exclusive role of the

    protein,” she said. “We do know that each time researchers have

    described an association between a particular receptor and

    another molecule at the cell surface, it has always been the case

    that the specificity of the original receptor is being modified. So,

    we have found new molecular players, if you will, in the game of

    pheromone detection.”

    Dulac said that the newly discovered MHC molecule involvement

    could have important implications for understanding the

    pheromone system. “This association opens all sorts of

    possibilities for the mechanism of pheromone detection, because

    we know the animal can modulate its behavior according to the

    sex of another animal, its genetic background and the elements

    that make up the identity of an animal.”

    The discovery of escort molecules in the pheromone system

    could have implications for understanding the molecular

    machinery involved in smell and taste, Dulac said. Researchers

    knew that in cell cultures, olfactory and taste receptors seemed

    to require additional molecules to reach the surfaces of cells.

    That observation hints at the need for still-undiscovered escort

    molecules for those receptors, as well as for the V1R-

    expressing class of pheromone receptors, she said.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    CATS COMFORTED BY SYNTHETIC CHEMICAL, RESEARCH

    SUGGESTS
    COLUMBUS, Ohio - Have an anxious cat? A synthetic chemical

    may be what it takes to put kitty at ease in unfamiliar territory,

    a new study suggests.

    Researchers at Ohio State University found that when stressed

    cats were exposed to a synthetic form of a feline facial

    pheromone (FFP), they ate more and seemed more comfortable

    in a hospital than did cats not exposed to the pheromone.

    FFP is one of a variety of pheromones, chemicals that animals

    use to communicate with others of the same species. FFP seems

    to signal comfort and amicability.



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------
    \"The increases in grooming, interest in food and food intake

    suggest that FFP had an anxiety-reducing effect on some cats,\"

    Buffington said.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------

    Changing a cat\'s behavior by introducing a synthetic pheromone

    to its environment is a unique solution to helping agitated cats,

    said Tony Buffington, co-author of the study and professor of

    clinical nutrition at Ohio State\'s College of Veterinary Medicine.

    \"Veterinarians are so used to putting something in or on an

    animal that we\'ve never really thought of altering the animal\'s

    environment,\" he said. \"Using pheromones may be an effective

    way of calming cats.\"

    The study appears in a recent issue of the Journal of the
    American Veterinary Medical Association. Buffington conducted

    the study with Cerissa Griffith, a veterinary student at Ohio

    State, and Elizabeth Steigerwald, of Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical

    Research.

    In one study, 20 cats were housed in stainless steel cages 3

    feet high by 4 feet wide at Ohio State\'s veterinary teaching

    hospital. The cages included a litter pan, food and water bowls

    and a clean towel. Enough space was left between the litter box

    and the back of the cage to allow the cat to hide in this area.

    When faced with new surroundings, especially in a hospital with

    other animals, cats tend to show signs of stress and fear, such

    as hiding or becoming hyper-vigilant, Buffington said. Common

    behaviors, such as exploring their surroundings and playing, are

    often suppressed.

    In this study, 10 cats (four healthy, six ill) were exposed to

    synthetic FFP while the rest of the cats (three healthy, seven ill)

    were exposed to towels that had been sprayed with ethanol (the

    ethanol, which acted as a placebo, evaporated before the

    animals were placed in the cage with the towels.) The

    researchers applied FFP or ethanol to the towels 30 minutes

    before placing the towels in each cage. The researchers

    videotaped the cats for 125 minutes. They then recorded cat

    behavior and food intake for 18 five-minute intervals that began

    35 minutes after the cat was placed in the cage with the towel.

    \"The effects of FFP tend to kick in about a half-hour after

    exposure,\" Buffington said. Once the FFP kicked in, though, the

    cats exposed to the pheromone exhibited more episodes of

    typical feline behavior, such as lying in the cage, sitting, grooming

    and eating. Three cats in the FFP group ate during the

    observation period, compared to only one cat in the control

    group; the cats in the FFP group that did eat consumed nearly

    10 grams of food during the observation period, compared to 0

    .2 grams in the non-exposed group.

    What was key with these findings was that cats exposed to the

    pheromone exhibited more \"calming behaviors,\" Buffington said.

    \"The increases in grooming, interest in food and food intake

    suggest that FFP had an anxiety-reducing effect on some cats,\"

    Buffington said. \"The cats responded to the synthetic FFP by

    increased episodes of facial rubbing, which meant they released

    more FFP onto objects in the cage.\" Cats release FFP via glands

    in their face.

    In a second study, researchers looked at another environmental

    factor that may help calm anxious cats. The researchers

    exposed 20 cats - all different than those in the first study - to

    FFP and placed cat carriers in half of the cages. They wanted to

    know if having a place to hide - the carrier - would have an

    effect on their food intake. For this study, the researchers

    recorded the 24-hour food intake of each group.

    Adding the carrier caused cats to eat significantly more,

    Buffington said. These cats consumed an average of 26 grams

    of food during the 24-hour period, while the cats without the

    carrier consumed about 9 grams of food. (26 grams is

    equivalent to about half of a cat\'s daily food intake needs.)

    \"The increase in food intake in this group suggests that other

    features of the environment may affect a cat\'s response to

    FFP,\" Buffington said.

    Synthetic FFP is currently available from veterinarians,

    Buffington said. Cat owners can use it to make their pet feel

    more comfortable at home or to control fearful behavior.

    \"It\'s a lot easier for an owner to spray a pheromone around the

    home than it is to stick a pill down a cat\'s throat,\" Buffington

    said.

    Abbott Laboratories provided support for thiBoth smells and

    pheromones may arouse instinctive behaviors in mammals


    July 16, 2001


    BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Ever notice how male dogs come from

    the other side of the neighborhood when a female dog is in heat?


    All it takes is a few molecules of a certain chemical to enable

    mammals to smell their own species up to a half-mile away, said

    Milos Novotny, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and

    director of the Institute for Pheromone Research at Indiana

    University.


    The chemicals, called pheromones, are detected by the

    vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the animal\'s nose. Unlike the part of

    the nose that detects ordinary smells, this super-sensitive organ

    is connected directly to the mid-brain.


    \"This is the shortest organ-to-brain distance in mammalian

    biology,\" Novotny said. \"A cascade of biochemical processes can

    be triggered quite selectively by specific olfactants such as

    pheromones at incredibly small quantities. Studies of mammalian

    pheromones can have a significant effect on pest control,

    promoting endangered species, and, perhaps above all, for

    understanding our own sense of smell and associated behaviors.\"


    Signals from a mammal\'s nose caused by normal smells called

    odorants go to various places in the cortex, in the upper part of

    the brain, which is why humans are conscious of smells. But

    pheromone signals go directly to the mid-brain, without being

    processed by the conscious brain. What happens after that is

    not completely clear, but there is a lot of evidence that the

    animal\'s behavior and hormonal levels are influenced.


    In a paper published July 12 in the journal Nature, Novotny and

    co-workers at Harvard Medical School in Boston headed by

    Linda Buck reported that the vomeronasal organ can actually

    detect both odorants and pheromones. The VNO detected

    odorants classified as animalic, camphoraceous, citrus, floral,

    fruity, green/minty, musky, sweet or woody. Like pheromones,

    these odorants were detected at extremely small

    concentrations.


    \"This suggests that in mammals, as in insects, odorous

    compounds released from plants or other animal species may act

    as \'semiochemicals\' -- signaling molecules that elicit behaviors

    that are advantageous to the sender or the receiver,\" Novotny

    said.


    \"The house mouse provides a classic example of an elaborate

    pheromone communication system: to signal inter-male

    aggression and dominance, to show readiness for mating, to slow

    down or accelerate the onset of puberty as needed, or to signal

    stress to the other members of a colony,\" he said. \"Other

    mammals, including possibly humans, use structurally diverse

    substances for pheromone signaling.\"


    The established view is that mammals detect odorants in the

    olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nose and detect pheromones in

    the vomeronasal organ. OE signals are relayed to various areas

    in the cortex of the brain, while VNO signals are targeted to

    areas of the mid-brain that control instinctive drives,

    neuroendocrine responses and innate behaviors. The findings by

    Novotny and his collaborators demonstrate that the VNO and

    OE do not, in fact, detect mutually exclusive sets of chemicals.


    Novotny\'s laboratory identified the first definitive mammalian

    pheromones in the house mouse in the late 1980s, including their

    chemical structure, synthesis and biological effects. Before

    then, the term \"pheromones\" was largely confined to the world

    of insects. Since then, he has identified pheromones in rats and

    hamsters as well.


    His current emphasis is on the neurochemistry of neurons in the

    VNO and OE. He is the leader of interdisciplinary studies that

    bridge the physical sciences, life sciences and social sciences,

    including chemistry, neurobiology, psychobiology, biochemistry,

    wildlife ecology, medical sciences, and animal physiology and

    behavior.


    The Institute for Pheromone Research at IU is a center of

    excellence in the rapidly developing areas of chemical

    communication (semiochemistry) and biochemical aspects of

    olfactory perception. It promotes interdisciplinary collaborations

    between IU scientists and a worldwide network of researchers

    in chemical communication.


    Novotny can be reached at 812-855-4532 or novotny@indiana.

    edu


    (Hal Kibbey, 812-855-0074, hkibbey@indiana.edu)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Pinning Down Pheromones
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------

    Challenge
    Many bacteria release chemicals called pheromones to monitor

    their population density. The bacteria use this information to

    regulate the transcription of certain genes such as those that

    cause luminescence or biofilms. Scientists hope that by pinning

    down precisely how pheromones control gene behavior, they can

    learn how to manipulate them (with pharmaceuticals, for

    example) to prevent diseases in humans, such as cystic fibrosis,

    as well as diseases that affect our agricultural resources.

    Argonne\'s Response
    A team of Argonne bioscientists has been the first to observe

    the three-dimensional structure of a pheromone captured in the

    act of binding to a gene\'s regulatory element. The pheromone-

    DNA-transcription-factor complex they analyzed is from

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a bacterium that causes tumors in

    crops (Figure 1). Learning about the pheromone\'s structural

    convolutions and its binding sites helps scientists deduce how the

    pheremone functions on the molecular level. They can then

    hypothesize how similar systems may work in other pathogenic

    bacteria.

    Approach
    The Argonne-solved structure is the first transcriptionally active

    complex combining pheromone with transcription-factor protein

    and DNA to be captured in three dimensions. Researchers used

    the world\'s most powerful x-rays the Structural Biology Center

    beams at Argonne\'s Advanced Photon Source. The x-rays

    diffract from (and scatter off) the crystallized molecule, and

    the intensities of the diffracted beams are read by a computer

    that feeds these data into advanced structure determination

    programs (Figure 2). The structure was determined at a

    resolution of 1.66 angstroms allowing scientists to detect the

    details of the structure. (To give some perspective: 10 million

    angstroms make up 1 millimeter.)



    Figure 1. Three-dimensional visualization of the structure of a

    pheromone-DNA-transcription factor, as delineated by Argonne

    bioscientists using the Structural Biology Center at the

    Advanced Photon Source. Blue = DNA, red = pheromone, shades

    of red and blue = subunit-interaction sites and RNA polymerase

    activation sites on transcription factor protein.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------


    Figure 2. Diagram of x-ray-scattering analysis at Argonne\'s

    Advanced Photon Source, where scientists use the world\'s

    brightest x-ray beams to study nanoscale structures.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------

    Results
    By discovering the pheromone-binding site, Argonne scientists

    have determined that the A. tumefaciens pheromone works

    indirectly, by making the transcription-factor protein more

    stable and forming molecule pairs that are asymmetrical and

    activate gene transcription (Figure 3). They have also confirmed

    that the pheromone provides a necessary \"scaffold\" for

    formation of the molecule pairs, and that the asymmetry of the

    molecule pairs is likely to be significant in activating gene

    transcription. These structure-function relationships can be

    considered prototypes for similar pheromones.

    Future Research
    Work is under way to expand this research by:

    Looking at the binding sites of pheromone analogs,
    Creating structural mutations in the A. tumefaciens transcription

    factor to study their effects on DNA binding and on activation

    of gene transcription, and
    Determining the three-dimensional structure of the molecule

    pair complexed with RNA polymerase — catching it in the act of

    gene activation

    Figure 3. Argonne bioscientists determined the details of

    pheromone binding, at 1.66-angstrom resolution, of a TraR

    transcription-factor protein from A. tumefaciens bacteria. The

    protein interacts with pheromone and a water molecule (light

    blue).

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------

    Contact
    Andrzej Joachimiak
    Biosciences Division and Structural Biology Center
    Phone: 630/252-3926
    Fax: 630/252-6126
    andrzejj@anl.gov


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    -----------

    R-5 — 8/2002 Printable PDF version
    Collaborators
    Cornell University
    Monsanto Company

    Sponsors
    U.S. Department of Energy, Office
    of Biological and Environmental Research
    National Institutes of Health



    Contact: Tony Buffington, (614) 292-7987; Buffington.1@osu.

    edu
    Written by Holly Wagner, (614) 292-8310; Wagner.235@osu.

    edu
    -------------------------------------------------------------------
    PSC Synchronin Project

    Background

    At its inception, Pheromone Sciences Corp. set its sights on the

    development of commercially viable human pheromone

    compounds. The first of these, a synthesized pheromone

    product based on compounds found in female human sweat, was

    named PSC Synchronin™.

    Pheromones are behavior-modifying hormones transmitted

    between both insects and animals by scent or by contact. The

    knowledge of insect pheromones is considerable, research in

    recent years having been driven by a market demand for safer

    pesticides. The use of insect pheromone compounds can achieve

    pest control by confusing normal insect behavior and preventing

    reproduction. Pheromones are good for human health and the

    environment because they pose fewer risks than traditional

    chemical pesticides. Some brand-name pharmaceutical

    companies, through their AgChem divisions, are now developing or

    producing biopesticides that are based on insect pheromone

    compounds.

    Up until the mid-1990s, when Pheromone Sciences Corp. made its

    first discoveries in the field, the pheromones of humans had

    been less well studied than those of insects, although the

    evidence for human pheromones had been building for some

    time. Much of the attention to human pheromones had focused

    on attempting to identify male-secreted compounds, such as

    steroids in sweat responsible for human body odour, thought to

    potentially influence the menstrual cycles and/or sexual

    behavior of females. However, this approach is not consistent

    with what has been observed in nature. Adult males secrete

    steroids in their apocrine sweat somewhat continuously, and

    therefore could not be expected to provide a time signal that

    would synchronize a female partner\'s cycle. Further, it has been

    known since the early 1970s that women who live in close

    quarters such as college dormitories often become synchronized

    in their menstrual cycles. This phenomenon suggested that some

    possible pheromone-type factor that manifests itself between

    women had the capability of lengthening or shortening their

    cycles.

    Dr. Martha McClintock, an American researcher, observed cycle

    synchronization in female rats, and proposed a coupled-

    oscillator hypothesis whereby cycle-shortening pheromones were

    presumed to be released in the late follicular stage (the time

    prior to ovulation) and cycle-lengthening pheromones at the time

    of ovulation. She and Dr. Jeffrey Schank later tested this

    hypothesis. In 1998, Dr. McClintock suggested that the same

    coupled-oscillator hypothesis for cycle synchronization is in

    operation in human females, and provided evidence for this by

    stimulating changes in women\'s menstrual cycle length by

    exposing them to armpit sweat from women collected in their

    follicular or ovulatory phases.

    As to the method of transmission, recent genetic studies have

    discovered a pheromone receptor in humans, found to be

    expressed in the main olfactory bulb---the same organ that

    gives us our sense of smell.

    PSC\'s early scientific research built on the body of work by the

    American researchers, adding observations about the effects

    female human pheromones have on males-including libido

    enhancement and mood elevation.

    The Company\'s first evidence of effects on males came when it

    was observed that women in their follicular phase appeared to

    release a substance that affected electrolyte metabolism (anti

    -diuretic activity) in their male partners. Subsequently, it was

    found that this affect could be transferred to certain men by

    simply exposing them to sweat extracts from the women.

    Experiments with males found that certain subjects exhibited

    consistent elevations in certain urinary hormone levels observed

    after exposure to these female extracts. These sweat extracts

    have been subjected to biochemical investigation to determine

    their precise chemical makeup, as well as the timing and

    mechanisms for their release.

    In our drive to isolate these compounds, an examination was

    undertaken as to their effects on sex drive in males. In pilot

    experiments over the past years, a procedure was carried out to

    track the changes in the male subjects\' urinary hormone levels.

    Subjective impressions on mood and libido were also observed

    and recorded. Based on research to date, we have synthesized

    12 chemical analogues that resemble the PSC compounds found

    in the active fractions isolated from female subjects.

    Clinical Testing

    In 2001, the Company initiated a small-scale placebo-controlled

    trial to test for pharmacological activity of these isolates on

    male libido and mood. Under the direction of Dr. Sidney

    Radomski, Toronto Hospital, Western Division, this study was

    undertaken for obtaining a better understanding of the

    pharmacological activity of these isolates as well as the best

    manner for testing and documenting their activity. If successful,

    PSC hopes to use this research to develop new pharmacological

    agents applicable to libido enhancement in men. However,

    because of the small sample sizes to date, the results cannot be

    considered conclusive until more extensive trials are undertaken

    with larger groups of subjects.

    The company has decided to hold off of any further

    investments in this project until the funds from sales of the PSC

    Fertility Monitor in North America and Europe materialize. This

    step will permit the company to stay focussed on projects which

    will generate revenues sooner as opposed to later.

    Intellectual Property

    It is anticipated that patent applications of the structure and

    synthesis of pheromone analogues will be filed upon completion

    of the tests using the synthesized analogues of PSC

    Synchronin™.

    Market Potential

    Pheromone\'s continuing research into how both the natural

    pheromones and the PSC Synchronin affect human physiology is

    bringing new knowledge about the hormonal control of libido.

    Pheromone intends to use this new data in the future to develop

    both drug and perhaps cosmetic applications for its pheromone

    based product.

    The Future

    A new era of pharmacological development is dawning, and

    Pheromone Sciences is poised to be at the leading edge with

    these new therapeutic agents.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    Pheromones in Humans: Myth or Reality?

    (c) 1992 David Wolfgang-Kimball

    The Senses

    Dr. Goldsmith

    Pheromones are volatile, odorous substances which are released

    by one animal and detected by another, causing some sort of

    physiological reaction. These reactions can manifest themselves

    in a variety of different ways: some pheromones modulate

    sexual activity, some affect aggression, some play roles in

    territory marking, and other pheromones have similarly diverse

    effects on the target animal. Pheromones have been

    demonstrated in a very large number of organisms ranging from

    amoebas to fish to mammals, including primates. However, the <br /

  19. #19
    Phero Pharaoh BassMan's Avatar
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    House of Rose,LLC does not use pheromones covered by the Erox patent. <font color=\"brown\"> </font>

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">

    Well, I obviously am not the one stirring the mix, but comparing this reply from House of Rose:

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    We use 100% estratetraenol ( estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol ) which is mixed with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract men &amp; 100% androstadienone ( 4,16-androstadien-3-one ) with a small amount of 99% ethanol to attract women.

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">

    with an article in The Journal of NIH Research, Jan 1994, Vol 6, by Robert Taylor:

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    The patent application states that 1,3,5(10), 16-estratetraene-3-ol uniquely elicits a change in surface potential in the male VNO, and that the female VNO responds to D4,16-androstadien-3-one.

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">

    it does indeed appear that they are.

    Why do you think that these are not the same chemicals?

  20. #20
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    The ingredients that follow the # 16 NOT are the same.

  21. #21
    Phero Pharaoh BassMan's Avatar
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    The ingredients that follow the # 16 NOT are the same.

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">


    Help me out here. I found the extra \"e\" in the estra- compound naming in the Taylor article I quoted.

    But from the Natural Attraction site (an Erox successor to Realm):

    </font><blockquote><font class=\"small\">Quote:</font><hr />
    The most obvious feature of these results is that only two of these compounds are significant stimulators of the human VNO. The substances are estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (estratetraenol) and androsta-4,16-dien-3-one (androstadienone)

    <hr /></blockquote><font class=\"post\">


    Apparently there was a typo in the earlier article.

    Dr. Kohl, can you comment on this?

  22. #22
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    Default Re: Lily of the Valley and Pheromones

    That was a typo.

  23. #23
    Sadhu bjf's Avatar
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    Default

    bump, lots of articles above

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