Close

Results 1 to 11 of 11
  1. #1
    Sadhu bjf's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2003
    Posts
    3,781
    Rep Power
    6691

    Default Pheromone Article

    visit-red-300x50PNG
    Since personal chemistry

    was brought up in another thread, and we are trying to figure out all the variables of why products work and don't

    for individuals, I thought I paste this article from the Lily of the Vally Pheromones thread in the women's forum

    that was bumped up a couple of days ago (lots of articles)

    Anyone with any ideas on how we can use this

    information to help us get laid easier would be appreciated.

    March 7, 2003— Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    (HHMI)
    researches and their colleagues have discovered that escort
    molecules are required to usher pheromone

    receptors to the
    surface of sensory neurons where they are needed to translate chemical cues.

    In an

    interesting twist, the researchers found that the escort
    molecules belong to a family of proteins, called the

    major
    histocompatibility complex (MHC), which plays an important role in the immune system. The researchers

    speculate that in addition to being escort molecules, the MHC proteins might actively modulate an animal's response

    to pheromones.

    Modulation of pheromone activity might aid in the recognition of other animals.

    The

    studies in mice add “a novel and unexpected layer of
    complexity to the process of pheromone detection,” the


    researchers wrote in an article published in the March 7, 2003, issue of the journal Cell. The article was

    published online on March 4, 2003. The findings also suggest that, similarly, escort molecules, although of a

    different kind, may be important in smell and taste receptors.

    HHMI investigators Catherine Dulac at Harvard

    University and
    Kirsten Fischer Lindahl at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center led the research

    teams that collaborated on the studies.

    The pheromone communication system, which is found in a wide range of

    mammals, involves detection of chemical odorants released by animals. Detection of pheromones takes place in a

    specialized structure, called the vomeronasal organ (VNO).

    Although the VNO resides in the nasal cavity, the

    pheromone
    sensory system is distinct from the sense of smell, as are the
    chemical receptors involved. In

    animals possessing a pheromone sensory system — including mice, dogs, cats and elephants — the system governs a

    range of genetically preprogrammed mating, social ranking, maternal, and territorial defense

    behaviors.

    According to Dulac, untangling the complexity of the pheromone system has been a daunting task for

    researchers. “For example, if you compare the number of receptors, which ranges between two hundred and four

    hundred, and the number of behaviors they trigger, which ranges up to a dozen, there is a huge discrepancy,” she

    said. “So, you can either postulate that there are hundreds of behaviors not yet described, or more likely a given

    behavior involves the activation of multiple receptors.”

    To begin sorting out the functions of the multitude

    of
    pheromone receptors, Dulac and her colleagues decided to study a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the VNO.

    The researchers knew they could distinguish neurons that expressed one family of receptors, called V2R, from another

    family, called V1R, so they used a technique called “subtractive differential screening of single cell cDNA

    libraries” to compare the genes that are switched on in neurons bearing the two different types of pheromone

    receptor.

    Their comparisons — as well as sequencing of the discovered
    genes and searches of gene

    databases — yielded evidence that two families of MHC genes called M1 and M10 were
    preferentially activated in

    these neurons, said Dulac. The finding was surprising because MHC proteins commonly function on the surface of

    immune cells to present foreign proteins to the immune system to trigger destruction of invading pathogens. The M10

    proteins found in the VNO were different in structure and obviously in function from other such

    molecules.

    Dulac's and Fischer Lindahl's research teams set out to explore the structure and function of

    the M10 type of MHC proteins that the genes produced. Their studies revealed that the MHC genes were exclusively

    expressed in the VNO and in no other tissue. And within the VNO, they were only expressed in V2R-positive VNO

    neurons. The researchers observed that each type of V2R receptor apparently had a specific type of M10 protein

    associated with it.

    “So, we found that there is a population of neurons in which each neuron expresses only

    one type of pheromone receptor gene,” said Dulac. “We also were able to show that these individual neurons express

    only one type of M10 gene. This told us there was some type of logic in that association.”

    Additional studies

    showed that the M10 gene was activated only after birth, which suggested that M10 only functions in
    pheromone

    sensing in the adult animal. The researchers showed that the M10 proteins, like the pheromone receptor proteins,

    were localized to the tips of neurons, called dendrites, where chemical reception takes place.

    Their studies

    showed that the M10 protein, as well as an “
    accessory” molecule, beta2-microglobulin, that accompanies such M10

    proteins, directly interacted with the pheromone receptor molecule. Finally, they found that the M10 protein and its

    accessory molecule were necessary for the pheromone receptor to reach the surface of the neuron.

    The

    researchers also explored the effects of knocking out the
    key M10 accessory molecule, beta2-microglobulin, in

    mice. They found that the beta2-microglobulin-knockout male mice lacked V2R receptors in their VNOs and also failed

    to exhibit the normal aggressive behavior toward other males.

    According to Dulac, the scientists' findings

    show that M10 plays a crucial escort role for pheromone receptors, but it might well have a modulatory role. “The

    fact that the receptor needs M10 to go to the surface, doesn't prove it's the exclusive role of the protein,” she

    said. “We do know that each time researchers have described an association between a particular receptor and another

    molecule at the cell surface, it has always been the case that the specificity of the original receptor is being

    modified. So, we have found new molecular players, if you will, in the game of pheromone detection.”

    Dulac

    said that the newly discovered MHC molecule involvement could have important implications for understanding the

    pheromone system. “This association opens all sorts of possibilities for the mechanism of pheromone detection,

    because we know the animal can modulate its behavior according to the sex of another animal, its genetic background

    and the elements that make up the identity of an animal.”

    The discovery of escort molecules in the pheromone

    system
    could have implications for understanding the molecular machinery involved in smell and taste, Dulac

    said. Researchers
    knew that in cell cultures, olfactory and taste receptors seemed to require additional

    molecules to reach the surfaces of cells. That observation hints at the need for still-undiscovered escort molecules

    for those receptors, as well as for the V1R-expressing class of pheromone receptors, she said.

  2. #2
    Doctor of Scentology DrSmellThis's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2002
    Location
    Oregon
    Posts
    6,233
    Rep Power
    7175

    Default

    Excellent post.
    DrSmellThis (creator of P H E R O S)

  3. #3
    Stranger
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Posts
    1
    Rep Power
    0

    Default Pheromone to Attract Women

    Nice

    article.

    ===
    <Link Deleted>
    Last edited by belgareth; 01-30-2006 at 12:33 PM.

  4. #4
    Kodachrome Forever! Gegogi's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2004
    Location
    Lost
    Posts
    2,708
    Rep Power
    6122

    Default

    Maybe MHC is the many fabled

    secret ingredient in TE and NPA...
    "I'm just a dirty hornytoad" -Gegogi

  5. #5
    Full Member
    Join Date
    Dec 2005
    Posts
    102
    Rep Power
    5184

    Default

    >>> Maybe MHC is the many fabled

    secret ingredient in TE and NPA...

    Were going to have to speculate unless they decide to let us know I was

    told that the secret ingredient in TE and NPA is probly "A1" (still just a guess) but in this case it's an educated

    guess from a big money player in the phero world. I still have to wonder - cant these compounds be sent to a lab for

    analisis?
    .

  6. #6
    Sadhu bjf's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2003
    Posts
    3,781
    Rep Power
    6691

    Default

    I looked into it, and there's really

    no reasonable way that people could come out with mhc products. It's far more complex than pheromones.

    I

    used to think it was A1, too... but now I'm pretty sure it's not.
    "An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest."
    --Benjamin Franklin

  7. #7
    Bodhi Satva CptKipling's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2002
    Location
    UK
    Posts
    5,142
    Rep Power
    7007

    Default

    Yeah, it's "more different is

    better" attractiveness based on the practically infinate variables - derived from your own mother/father recombinant

    DNA - relative to the number of different possible configurations of antigens on invading microbes.

    So yeah

    pretty complex.
    CptKipling

    Information about pheromones: Pheromone Information Library

  8. #8
    Banned User jvkohl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2002
    Location
    Northern Georgia
    Posts
    1,127
    Rep Power
    0

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by bjf
    I looked into it, and

    there's really no reasonable way that people could come out with mhc products. It's far more complex than

    pheromones.
    I can't recall which classes of HLA (human MHC correlate) are associated with more

    pleasant natural body odor from men, but there are at least two classes mentioned in a recent study. If someone

    isolates the associated protein products, we would have the possibility of MHC

    products.

    JVK

  9. #9
    Sadhu bjf's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2003
    Posts
    3,781
    Rep Power
    6691

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by CptKipling
    Yeah, it's "more

    different is better" attractiveness based on the practically infinate variables - derived from your own

    mother/father recombinant DNA - relative to the number of different possible configurations of antigens on invading

    microbes.

    So yeah pretty complex.
    Right. And then there are the other studies that also say

    similar with some variation. I think we'd all tend to believe the different is better ones.

    In any case, yea

    there are so many combinations...
    "An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest."
    --Benjamin Franklin

  10. #10
    Sadhu bjf's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2003
    Posts
    3,781
    Rep Power
    6691

    Default

    Quote Originally Posted by jvkohl
    I can't recall which

    classes of HLA (human MHC correlate) are associated with more pleasant natural body odor from men, but there are at

    least two classes mentioned in a recent study. If someone isolates the associated protein products, we would have

    the possibility of MHC products.

    JVK
    Thanks for bringing this

    up. It's something worth discussing more.
    "An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest."
    --Benjamin Franklin

  11. #11
    Enlightened One
    Join Date
    Feb 2002
    Posts
    4,678
    Rep Power
    6881

    Default

    hmmm also worth some more anayasis

    and research MHC products sound like another step forward with pheromone science if it could be done. Will watch

    this space.

Thread Information

Users Browsing this Thread

There are currently 1 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests)

Similar Threads

  1. Using Pheromones for Attraction & Bonding -Article
    By Io_Sono in forum Pheromone Discussion
    Replies: 37
    Last Post: 03-09-2005, 07:42 PM
  2. Pheromone Research Article
    By Kari in forum Pheromone Discussion
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 12-31-2003, 05:28 PM
  3. Pheromone Article today in the Boston Globe
    By nbnbtc in forum Pheromone Discussion
    Replies: 11
    Last Post: 09-04-2003, 09:37 AM
  4. The Pheromone News; May, 2003
    By Bruce in forum Pheromone Discussion
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 05-09-2003, 12:32 PM
  5. PHEROMONE NEWS FOR MAY, 2001
    By **DONOTDELETE** in forum Archives 2
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 06-24-2001, 09:08 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •