View Full Version : Other non sexual pheromones that bond?

06-24-2001, 08:36 AM
Ok I just had a though. I am very new to this forum so forgive me if this is already common knowledge. I once read an article about women that insist on having their newborn babies stay with them in their hospital room. Evidently this is the most critical stage for family bonding. If memory serves, the woman secretes a pheromone that causes tremendous bonding between the whole family or anyone present, this ensures the man stays around, the baby know her mom, etc... So my point is this, where can I find this stuff if it even exists, seems to me that this might elicit a different feeling, maybe love instead of sex? I also read once that when a man and woman are engaged in sex that the woman bonds to the man due to a \"chemical\" release. Is this just another pheromone. Or is this the same bonding pheromone as mentioned above and if so are these pheromones commercially available? Thanks for reading and any info you have.

06-24-2001, 08:37 AM
I came across this article a while back and have seen other articles that support this article. It is my belief that pheromones are the causes of the sexual excitement and that causes the orgasm that gets the oxytocin to flow to create the bond, there may be other pheromones that increase the flow too. Pheromones are responsible for alot the interactions between the sexes.
I have not heard of the specific pheromones tha you are looking for, although the pheromones that are on this site are not specific sex inducers, they just work on other feelings of attraction, i.e. the alpha male theory where a male with more androsteNone is an alpa male or at least smells like one. or with androstenol there might be a bond creator there but I don\'t know for sure
and androsteRone I don\'t know I\'m going to buy some and test it.
endorphines ©
by Robert Hedges ©

Endorphines | Capacity to copulate | Animal drives | The continuum | Growth
Hormone | Sexual energy | Female arousal survey results | Sex3 page |

Sexual attraction is caused by :
and phenylethylamine (PEA) working in unison.
PEA is the infatuation inducing stimulant. These three endorphines create a
feeling of euphoria & uncertainty, resulting in insatible desire. There is a 4
yr limit due to neurotransmitter bombardment over an extended time dulling the
A fourth endorphine creates a bond over in the long haul, which is why divorce
is difficult when chemistry between individuals works.
Oxytocin is the cuddling hormone - It reaches a five-fold increased elevation at
the moment of male orgasm.
The enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO ) is the chemical of risk takers
It is known to be 20% lower in women
the hormone which causes fear is to warn us of danger - not to make us afraid of
phenylalanine, choline,tyrosine and DMAE are smart chemicals
Tryptophan->Hydroxytryptophan, Vitamine B6->Serotonin-> relaxation
The anxiety hormones increase alertness, spur your action, give an extra spark.
Stress hormones have a catabolic effect on the body. Anxiety & uncertainty
relate to arousal.
Depression is anger turned inward. Always work off anger, and burn the sugar &
The steroid pregnenolone restores normal levels of memory hormones in mice -
Neurobiologist Eugene Roberts, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte. St Louis
Veterans Admin Med Ctr Missouri. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences
Steroids result in hyperactivity & inflated self esteem.
A Baltimore study indicated that 33% of males over 50 years of age develop TgH
deficiency. 3 months of twice per wk treatment will result in muscle strength
increase weight by 5 %, 20% drop in cholesterol, slight increase in prostrate
cancer risk.
Prozak raises serotonin levels - higher serotonin makes confidence,
assertivness, vivacity, results in a higher degree of mental activity, security,
more outgoing, carefree, more vitally alive, less pessimistic, reduced anxiety,
loosens the grip of obsessive compulsive behavior, combats attention deficit
disorder, reduces pain of arthritis, cronic fatigue, dims pain center, gives
happy face, makes more energetic, serotonin has numerous ties to the pituitary
which produces the key sex hormones - serotonin inhibits ejaculation in animals.

The individual who has the serotonin level which gives assertivness, confidence,
vitality, low anxiety, also gives a chemical basis for inhibited ejaculation,
which is secondary impotence, if this inhibitory effect lasts for hours.
dopamine - neuromelanin - substantia nigra -dopamine site primitive melanocytes
evolved into nerve cells
The vomeronasal organ bypasses awareness and effect the primitive brain - it is
based on irrestible, attractive, mediate impressions. This is the nose at work.
Smells go a very short route into the brain. lymbic-appetite, mood, sexual &
memory VNO. UKentucky was doing olfactory studies in 1992
Anger is very similar to male orgasm- fierce competition gives testasterone
rise- males= alpha=fight=dominate=alpha state=breeding anxiety & uncertainty
relate to arousal-

an american woman has on average 2843 sexual encounters during reproductive

Sex strips away identities it take a lifetime to build. A naked aroused man is
not a brain surgeon, or a University president, or a Methodist Bishop. He is an
animal with an erection. John Hubner - The Bottom Feeders- discussing the appeal
of erotica -quoted in Playboy Forum July 1993 p.56

Sexuality is on a continuum. At the moment of conception, all human primates are
female. There are females who are masculine and there are males who are
feminine. Each are located at some point on the continuum, near the center,
where the gender-overlap is located. And there are truly masculine males who are
the farthest from the point of conception that a human primate can get. All of
the human primates are on this continuum.

Growth hormone [gH] - somatropin- small protein, thickens bones, stimulates
growth of any tissue. Bone growth continues until the mid-thirties (physical
growth thirties), so calcuim is always needed.
gH increases during first 2 hours of sleep, REM sleep - naps after exercise
without REM sleep do not substitute. 10 min of high intensity aerobic exercise
or a minimum of 10 reps with free weights will cause a gH response. [increased
gH increases your RNA so more protein synthesis can take place.
gH enhanses the transport of amino acids through the cell membrane for a net
gH triggers the release of fatty acids to energize your growth, rather than
using up glycogen stores to get new growth.
gH increases in 5 minutes, plateau at 14 minutes - maxes in 25 minutes and
returns to normal after 90 minutes. Therefore a workout exceeding 90 minutes
may not add growth, and may cause catabolism if carbos and protein are not
ingested during the time period when your body seeks glycogen.
gH pulses are lowest at 8-9 am. gH decreases by 11% during the decade commonly
known as the physical 40s, followed by a 20% decrease during the 50s and
progressively more. The result is loss of muscle & bone, thin skin, increased
body fat. Exercise which increases gH will reverse this atrophy of aging.
gH is closely related to testasterone [TgH]. Saliva tests done at the Georgia
State Univ. to determine TgH levels indicated that grouping of frats who had
lower grades, more activities, more routy parties, also had higher levels of
TgH.. . . .TgH, and other builders will peak at 75-90 minutes. . . . . for
increased muscle mass cram workout into this time . . . cinnamon boosts the
insulin activity in several experiment by 1200%. USDA Nutrution Center.
Beltsville, MD. Use it as a seasoning.

There is a positive correlation between unreleased sexual anxiety or energy and
poor concentration in class.
The male prostrate gland is similar to a muscle and responsible for ejaculation
contractions, which are inexorably linked to male orgasm. It is believed that
the prostrate is healthier if it is exercised on a steady schedule. This means
that a constant and steady pattern of orgasm is optimum rather than a \"feast or
famine\" schedule. The prostrate grows larger with age, presumably as a result of
exposure to hormones and to use. Long periods of abstinence from orgasm followed
by a period of frequent orgasms, sets the stage for damage or injury which
causes difficulty with orgasm in later years. On the other side of the coin, a
study indicated that the individuals who used up less of some valuable enzymes
in the creation of sperm cells may live to older ages. However, the unused sperm
are wasted because they deteriorate several days after their creation, and are
disposed of naturally. You figure. (lifted from recent editions of The Playboy

From 52 Harv L R 40 at 73, Albert - Judicial Censorship - Women answering a
questionnaire about what was most stimulating sexually, with 409 responses.
18 - pictures
9 - music
28 - dancing
40 - drama
95 - books
218 - man

Go back to Sex - Contents
Go back to the main menu
Last modified: January 1996

06-24-2001, 08:37 AM
Very fascinating post, good enough to save to a txt file for later reference.


06-24-2001, 08:37 AM
Mike: can you post the address where you got this text from?

Sex is like pizza, when its good, its really good, when its bad, its still pretty good

06-24-2001, 08:38 AM
I copied the page in text file to my computer so I don\'t have the address, but if you run it through a search engine with the search words, [endorphins, Robert Hedges, phenylethylamine], you should be able to at least narrow down the search and hopefully find the page.

06-24-2001, 08:38 AM
I just found this article tonight it seems to answer or attempt to answer your questions.

Androstenol as a Pheromone Promoting Pillow TalkAndrostenol as a Pheromone
Promoting Pillow Talk
Edward M. Miller
Professor of Economics and Finance
University of New Orleans
New Orleans, LA 70148
November 4, 1995
Cowley & Brooksbank in this journal provided evidence that female exposure to
androstenol increases the number and depth of female interactions with males.
However, in nature, the only females customarily close enough to males to be
affected by male emitted androstenol would be sleeping and cuddling partners,
i.e. mates or potential mates. Thus, the observed behavioral response is
probably a mechanism for promoting bonding with mates, and evaluation of
potential mates. Recognizing an evolutionary purpose for the female reaction to
androstenol makes one feel more confident that the observed effects are real.
Cowley & Brooksbank (1991) have provided evidence that human females exposed to
5a-16-androsten-3a-ol (androstenol) overnight interact more with males than
unexposed females do. The experimental procedure involved having students wear
overnight a necklace designed to release androstenol. Next morning the subjects
filled in a questionnaire regarding who they had interacted with (i.e. who they
had spoken with, including greetings), who initiated the interaction, and the
depth of the interaction (\"i.e. the extent to which he/she felt the exchange
encompassed personal involvement.\"). No effect was found for males, or for
female interaction with females, but the females reported a significant increase
in interactions with males. For instance, the control females reported 3.08
interactions that morning with males, while those females exposed to androstenol
overnight reported 5.42 interactions with males, a difference that had
probability of occurring by chance of .024. The measure of depth rose from 34.2
to 97.4, significant at .011. The measure of duration rose from 6.09 to 26.7,
significant at .001. [para 4]
The authors of the article offer very little explanation for what function the
rather strong effects of androstenol serve, saying at the end merely that \"it
appears that exposure to androstenol induces \'approach\' response in females.\"
Earlier (p. 657), the authors had stated \"clearly from a sociobiological point
of view the benefit would be to the male signaler as the source of the
pheromone.\" The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible reason for the
emergence and continuation of female sensitivity to androstenol, and for male
ability to emit it. [para 5]
It does appear that human males are designed to emit androstenol (Kohl &
Francoeur, 1995; Stoddart, 1990). It is produced in apocrine glands that are
typically at the follicles from whence hair grows, especially under the arm and
in the public regions. They appear designed to wick up the odors from the
apocrine glands and distribute them to the atmosphere. This is shown by the
axillary hairs being associated with more apocrine glands than hairs in other
parts of the body. The musky odor produced from the axillae is caused by the
presence there of androstene and 5a-androstenol. Androstenol is known to be a
sexual pheromone in the pig which causes the sow to assume the position required
for mating. Men produce much more androstenol than do women in their urine
(Brooksbank, 1962) and more androsterone in their axillae (Bird, & Gower, 1982,
as cited by Stoddart, 1990, p. 66). [para 6]
While some human hairs can be argued to serve various purposes, such as
protecting the head from the sun, or sexual signaling, or reducing friction
during sex (pubic hairs), the underarm hairs are not located to keep us warm,
nor to protect us from the sun, or even to be visible at a distance. The only
plausible purpose appears to emit odors or pheromones. They do this efficiently.
Only one in ten shaved armpits are described as odorous 24 hours after washing,
while nine out of ten unshaved armpits are described as odorous (Shelley, Hurley
& Nicols, 1953, as cited in Stoddart, 1990, pp. 66-67). The concentration of
hairs here, served by multiple apocrine glands, must be an adaptation for the
production and dissemination of odors. [para 7]
Humans do appear designed to receive pheromones, since they have functioning
odor detection and apparently functioning vomeronasal systems (Garcia-Velasco&
Mondragon, 1991; Monti-Bloch, Jennings-White, Dolberg, & Berliner, 1994, Moran,
Jafek, & Rowley, 1991) with two of the substances reported in this journal
(Monti-Bloch & Grosser, 1991) as affecting the human vomeronasal organ
subsequently revealed (Jenning-White, 1995) to be
estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (estratetraenol) and androsta-4, 16-dien-3-one
(androstadienone), with the later affecting females more strongly and being
structurally related to androstenol. Humans are not noted for their ability to
detect odors over long distances. [para 8]
Thus, I would propose that in considering human pheromones that we abandon the
analogy from insects and some mammals of an effect operating at long distances,
such as the attraction or identification of mates. Humans can clearly recognize
and identify mates, potential mates, and children at long distance by sight and
sound. A pheromonal mechanism would add little to what can be accomplished by
these other means. [para 9]
However, pheromones in many mammals do play a role in reproduction, most
prominently in attracting a mate and preparing the mate for intercourse and
reproduction. I would suggest that the human pheromone, androstenol, (and
possibly other human pheromones) play a role in reproduction, but that this role
relates to the formation and maintenance of the pair bond. In essence, detection
of a pheromone emitted by the opposite sex, and only detectable at very close
range (such as occurs when sleeping together) is a sign of the presence of a
mate. The pheromone serves to promote behavior that leads to the formation or
continuation of a pair bond, or to reproductive behavior which is optimal in the
presence of a pair bond (having a baby). [para 10]
If human females are affected by androstenol in nature, one would ask where and
how they get sufficient exposure for a small but functional main and accessory
olfactory systems to detect it. The obvious answer is in sleeping with their
mates. Bonded humans regularly sleep together, frequently with the female
cuddled in the arms of the mate in a position that places her nose near the
axillae (armpits) of the male. Because typically women are shorter than men,
their heads are often in the vicinity of their mate\'s shoulders, and underarm
regions. [para 11]
Cowley & Brooksbank demonstrated that females exposed to androstenol engage in
many more, longer duration, and deeper interactions with men. In the experiment
these were a wide range of men they met presumably ranging from family members,
those met on public transport, those met in halls etc. Because they were wearing
an androstenol emitting necklace they would have been under the influence of the
androstenol. [para 12]
However, in natural conditions the androstenol exposure would have probably been
during the night. The exposure would have disappeared when the female arose and
went about her daily business. The only male who benefitted from her greater
\"approachability\" would normally be either her mate, or a mate to be. [para 13]
Much of the androstenol induced interaction would be what is referred to in our
society as \"pillow talk\", discussion with the mate or potential mate while lying
with him, or cuddling with him. Notice human males and females have desire to
\"cuddle\" with each other which will normally place the females nostrils close
enough to the males chest and underarm regions to be affected by any pheromones
being emitted. It is easy to imagine how such pillow talk creates and
strengthens the bond between male and female. [para 14]
It may also be noted that the pillow talk may help the female evaluate the male.
Engaging in much longer and deeper interactions than normal, she may learn
things from the conversation that help the female to evaluate the suitability of
that male as a long term mate, and his willingness to assist in rearing
children. [para 15]
It is useful to ask if a system by which males are designed to emit androstenone
to promote pillow talk, and females to receive it would be evolutionarily
stable. By evolutionarily stable is meant that individuals of either sex that
lacked the trait would enjoy less reproductive success than ones that had it
(Maynard-Smith, 1982). [para 16]
First consider a female who did not respond to androstenol. Engaging in less
interaction with her mate, she might form a less strong pair bond, and would
have less male assistance in raising her children. Identifying and attracting a
male to provide sperm is not a female problem in humans (hence pheromones
probably do not play a role), but inducing one to help raise the children is a
problem (Symons, 1979; Hrdy, 1981; Ridley, 1993). Thus, anything that promotes a
pair bond probably helps the female. [para 17]
Also, a female who did not experience an increased desire to interact with a
male she had slept with, or cuddled with, would have less information about him.
Such information assists her in deciding whether to form or maintain a pair bond
with him. The androstenol promoted interaction should facilitate the bonding
between the male and female, which is critical to female reproductive success.
[para 18]
Consider a female who interacted very readily with all males, regardless of
whether she was cuddling or sleeping with them. Such interaction would be very
time consuming. Thus, females who did not adjust their willingness to interact
to whether the male had already been granted sufficient access to cuddle or
sleep with (which normally indicates either the existence of a pair bond, or a
pair bond in the process of formation) would waste much energy, and increase
their risk of forming inappropriate pair bonds. [para 19]
The same argument would apply to a female who had a very sensitive system for
recognizing androstenol or other pheromones. She would be affected by the
pheromones emitted not only by mates and potential mates, but by other males in
the vicinity. She would lose the benefit of disproportionate interaction with
mates and potential mates. Thus, this theory can explain not only why females
have retained the ability to be affected by the pheromone, androstenol, but also
why their sensitivity to it is relatively weak (at least when compared with the
sensitivity exhibited in other species to pheromones). [para 20]
What about males? Consider a male who did not emit androstenol, or who had
relatively few hairs to disseminate it. Females would not be induced to interact
with him when he cuddled or slept with them. He would be less likely to form the
sort of strong pair bond that gave him continued sexual access and which led to
reproductive success. [para 21]
Thus, a role for androstenol as a human pheromone that promotes \"pillow talk\"
seems to be one that could emerge and survive. Since, in other species
pheromones signal between males and females, it is likely that it earlier played
a role in the relations between males and females. Once pair bonding became
important in humans, this mechanism could have been adapted, merely by forming a
few new connections in the brain, for differentially interacting with mates and
potential mates. Mean while, other uses for the mechanism might have gradually
disappeared if they were no longer needed, or were counterproductive. [para 22]
Admittedly, there is an alternative interpretation to the Cowley & Brooksbank
finding. Since the subjects\' reports on interaction were based on questionnaires
filled in after the necklaces were turned in, and it is hard to recall all
interactions, it is possible that the number of interactions were not affected
by the androstenol, but their ability to recollect interactions was. This
explanation is unlikely. Since forgotten interactions would probably be the
least in depth and shortest ones, such as a casual greeting, remembering more
interactions would lower the average depth. However, androstenol raised the
depth. However, even if the effect was due to androstenol affecting memory for
interactions with male, the effect could still be part of the pair bonding
mechanism. Something that improved a woman\'s memory for interactions with a man
she slept or cuddled with would be a most useful adaptation. It would assist her
in choosing whether to continue the relationship, and increase her retention of
information that would assist her in maintaining the pair bond. [para 23]
Other effects of androstenol and related compounds on behavior can be
interpreted as adaptations that facilitate pair bonding (Cowley, Johnson, &
Brooksbank, 1977; Filsinger, Braun, Monte & Linder, 1984; Kirk-Smith, Booth,
Carroll & Davies, 1978). For instance, Cowley, Johnson, & Brooksbank (1977)
found that women rate men more positively when exposed to androstenol. Benton
(1982) found that women exposed to anrostenol on the upper lip rated themselves
as more submissive around mid-cycle, a feeling that encourages impregnation.
Cowley and Brooksbank (1991, p. 658) mention that Jackson, working in their
laboratory had found evidence that the effects of an intial exposure to
androstenol can persist for at least two weeks. This is very consistent with a
pheromone that acts to inform the individual of the regular presence of a member
of the opposite sex (i.e. a mate), but not of one whose only purpose is to
facilitate a single sexual interaction. [para 24]
Of course, androstenol and other pheromones released by males could have other
purposes. The author has argued elsewhere (Miller, 1995) that the evidence that
female fertility is promoted by the proximity to a human male is a logical
adaptation designed to increase the relative probability that women become
pregnant by \"dads\" who will stay around and assist in raising the offspring,
rather than by \"cads\" who will after a \"one night stand\" abandon the women. If
one of the effects of physical proximity is to promote fertility, perhaps by
changing the hormonal environment so that implantation was more like, it would
be a useful adaptation. [para 25]
Several, otherwise puzzling effects in the literature could be explained such as
the tendency for women who regularly saw men to have more menstrual cycles of a
length more conducive to fertility (Cutler, 1991; Cutler, Garcia, & Krieger,
1979; Cutler, Garcia, & Krieger, 1980; Cutler, Preti, Huggins, Erickson,&
Garcia, 1985; Cutler, Garcia, Huggins,& Preti, 1986), the ability of an extract
from males to affect the female cycle (Cutler, Preti, Krieger, Huggins, Garcia,
& Lawley, 1986; Russel, Switz, & Thompson, 1980), exposure to men influencing
the occurrence of ovulation in women (Veith, Buck, Getzlaf, Van Dalfsen, &
Slade, 1983), and the ability of sexual intercourse to increase the probability
of success in gamete intrafallopian transfer (Marconi, Auge, Oses, Quintana,
Raffo, & Young, 1989). However, discussing this possible effect of male
pheromones is the subject of another paper (Miller, 1995). [para 26]
Policy implications
As reported, Cowley & Brooksbank just have described an interesting effect.
However, if female exposure to androstenol serves the purpose hypothesized, it
could be important. For instance, if human pair bonding is promoted by exposure
to axillary pheromones, perhaps antiperspirants serve to reduce a useful form of
chemical communication from males to females. This seems an important enough
question to justify further research. [para 27]
An obvious next step in the research is to do a double blind study in which the
males in a married couple use either an antiperspirant or a deodorant on a
random basis and then fill in questionnaires on the extent of their interactions
(conversations), both that morning and at other times. Since there is a good
chance that female emitted pheromones affect males, a similar experiment should
be done with females. [para 28]
Although, Cowley & Brooksbank have provided evidence that female exposure to
androstenol increases female interactions with males, including many casual
interactions with males met before arrival at school, in nature the only male
interactions promoted would be with mates or potential mates. The observed
behavioral response is probably a mechanism for promoting bonding with mates,
and evaluation of potential mates. Recognizing an evolutionary purpose for the
female reaction to androstenol makes one feel more confident that the observed
effects are real. [para 29]
Bird, S. & Gower, D. B.: The validation and use of a radioimmuno-assay for
5a-androst-16-3-one in human axillary collections. The J. Steroid Biochem 14,
(1982) 213-219. [para 30]
Benton, D.: The influence of androstenol-a putative human pheromone- on mood
througout the menstrual cycle. Biol. Psychol. 22, (1982) 141-147. [para 31]
Brooksbank, B. W. L.: Urinary excretion of androst-16-en-3a-ol. Levels in normal
subjects, and effects of treatments with trophic hormones. J Endocr. 24, (1962)
435-444. [para 32]
Cowley J. J., Johnson, A. L. & Brooksbank B. W. L.: The effect of two odorous
compounds on performance in an assessment of people test.
Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2, (1977) 159-172. [para 33]
Cowley J. J. & Brooksbank B. W. L.: Human exposure to putative pheromones and
changes in aspects of social behavior. The J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39
(1991) 647-659. [para 34]
Cutler W. B.: Love Cycles: The Science of Intimacy. Villard Books, New York
(1991) [para 35]
Cutler W. B., Garcia C. R. & Krieger A. M.: Luteal phase defects: A possible
relationship between short hyperthermic phase and sporadic sexual behavior in
women. Horm. Behav. 13 (1979) 214-218. [para 36]
Cutler W. B., Garcia C. R. & Krieger A. M.: Sporadic sexual behavior and
menstrual cycle length in women. Horm. Behav.14 (1980) 163-172. [para 37]
Cutler W. B., Preti G., Huggins G. R., Erickson B. & Garcia C. R.: Sexual
behavior frequency and biphasic ovulatory type menstrual cycles. Physiol Behav.
34 (1985) 805-810. [para 38]
Cutler W. B., Preti G., Krieger A., Huggins G. R., Garcia C. R. & Lawley H. J.:
Human axillary secretions influence womenUs menstrual cycles: The role of donor
extract from men. Horm Behav. 20 (1986) 463-73. [para 39]
Cutler W. B., Garcia C. R., Huggins G. R. & Preti G.:Sexual behavior and steroid
levels among gynecologically mature premenopausal women. Fertil.Steri. 45 (1986)
496-502. [para 40]
Filsinger E. E., Braun J. J., Monte W. C. and Linder D. E.: Human (Homo spaiens)
responses to the pig (Sus scrofa) sex pheromone 5-alpha-androst-16-en-3-one. J.
Comp. Psychol. 98 (1984) 219-222. [para 41]
Garcia-Velasco J. & Mondragon M.: The incidence of the vomeronasal organ in 1000
human subjects and its possible clinical significance. The J. Steroid Biochem.
Mol. Biol. 39, 4B (1991) 561-563 [para 42]
Hrdy S. B. The Women that Never Evolved, Harvard University Press, Cambridge
(1981). [para 43]
Jenning-White, C .: Perfumery and the Sixth Sense. Perfumer & Flavorist, 20
(July/August, 1995). [para 44]
Kirk-Smith, M., Booth D. A., Carroll D. & Davies, P.: Human social attitudes
affected by androstenol. Res. Commun. Psychol. Psychiat. Behav. 3 (1978)
379-384. [para 45]
Kohl J. V. & Francoeur R. T.: The Scent of Eros. Continum, New York (1995).
[para 46]
Marconi G , Auge L, Oses R. Quintana R., Raffo F. & Young E.: Does sexual
intercourse improve pregnancy rates in gamete intrafallopian transfer? Fertil.
Steril. 51 (1989) 28-34. [para 47]
Maynard-Smith J.: Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge (1982) [para 48]
McClintock, M.: Estrous synchrony: Modulation of ovarian cycle length by female
pheromones. Physiol. Behav. 32 (1984) 701-705. [para 49]
Miller, E.: Male signals of his continued presence and female receptivity.
manuscript (1985). [para 50]
Monti-Bloch L., & Grosser B. I.: Effect of putative pheromones on the electrical
activity of the human vomeronasal organ and olfactory epithelium. J. Steroid
Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39, 4B (1991) 573-583. [para 51]
Monti-Bloch L., Jennings-White C., Dolberg D. S., & Berliner D. L.: The human
vomeronasal system. Psychoneuroendocrinology 19 (1994) 673-686. [para 52]
Moran D. T., Jafek B. W. & Rowley J. C.: The vomeronasal (Jacobson\'s) organ in
man: ultrastructure and frequency of occurrence. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
39 (1991) 545-552. [para 53]
Ridley M.:The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. Macmillan, New
York (1993). [para 54]
Russel M. J., Switz G. M. & Thompson K.: Olfactory influences on the human
menstrual cycle. Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 13 (1980) 737-738. [para 55]
Stoddart, D. M. (1990). The Scented Ape: The Biology and Culture of Human Odor.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [para 56]
Symons D.: The Evolution of Human Sexuality, Oxford University Press, New York
(1979). [para 57]
Veith J. L., Buck M., Getzlaf S., Van Dalfsen P. & Slade S.: Exposure to men
influences occurrence of ovulation in women. Physiol Behav. 31 (1983) 313-315.
[para 58]